Tuberculosis (TB) | Prevention and Warning Signs of Tuberculosis

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Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic, communicable and Granulomatous disease usually caused by M.Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) usually involves lungs but may affect any other organ or tissue as well.

What is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic, communicable and granulomatous disease. It usually involves lungs but may affect any other organ or tissue as well.

What are causes of tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is caused by a bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some other bacteria like Mycobacterium bovis also cause TB. These bacteria damages the normal tissue of lung and causes local destruction.

What are signs and symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)?

Signs and symptoms of TB are:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Blood in sputum
  • Sweats during sleep
  • High grade fever
  • Weight loss
  • Anemia
  • Tachycardia (Increase in heart rate)

What are the tests to diagnose TB?

Different test are performed to diagnose Tuberculosis. Most common tests are:

  • X-ray Chest (It shows opacities and enlarged lymph nodes or may appear normal)
  • Tuberculin test ( A positive test in child who has not previously been vaccinated with BCG must be assumed too indicate active disease)
  • Sputum culture ( for Acid fast bacillus AFB )
  • ESR
  • PCR
  • Needle biopsies

How TB infection Spread?

TB can spread from one person to another person. It can spread by direct droplet infection by inhalation of air borne bacilli. Coughing and sneezing in atmosphere can cause this.

TB can also spread by infected clothing and dishes indirectly. Ingestion of contaminated milk causes infection of of Mycobacterium bovis.

What to do in TB?

  • Wear a Mask (cover the mouth)
  • Ventilate the room (this can limit the spread of bacteria)

What to avoid in TB?

You should avoid following things in TB:

  • Beans
  • Seeds
  • Alcohol
  • Canned foods
  • Sugar
  • White bread
  • Coffee
  • Fried foods

How Tuberculosis (TB) is managed?

Treatment of Tb should be started as soon as AFB smear is positive. Anti tuberculous therapy has two phases (initial and continuation phase).

Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide are some drugs used in treatment of TB.

Note: Do not use any medicine without consulting your doctor.

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